The ideal procedure for individual forgings is hammer forging. In this process, an immediate application of pressure to a comparatively limited region forms the material. A hammer or ram delivers the forged portion with sporadic strikes, adding the required strain. The hammer is lowered from its full height to do this and usually lifted by steam or air pressure. Hammer forging may yield a range of shapes and sizes and simultaneously generate a high degree of grain size if adequately reduced. Finish machining also follows hammer forging, as with this process alone, near dimensional tolerances cannot be achieved.
Two dies are used for this forging process. A running ram and a stationary anvil are connected to these dies. Heated metal on the anvil is put in the worked fields. The passing die is then pounded continuously with it. The power of the hammer shapes the metal into its ideal form. It depends on what is being made, how many hammer drops are needed. This method of forging involves a lot of pressure to ram the metal into the form required. However, Hammer forging involves mechanical power to produce adequate force and pressure to form the hot metal. This approach is perfect for individual forgings since it operates in limited areas to make a good, solid forging. In hammer forging, there are two primary types of anvil hammers used:
Hammers with gravity-drop
The upper ram is mounted to a frame (board-drop hammer), a string (belt-drop hammer), a wire (chain-drop hammer), or a piston (oil, steam-lift drop hammer, or air) in a necessary gravity-drop hammer. The ram is raised to such a height and then lowered on the stock on the anvil. The ram is powered by gravity during the downstroke and constructs the energy of the blast. Immediately following the blow, the upstroke takes place. A power-drop hammer’s operation concept is close to that of an air-drop hammer. In the downstroke, the ram is accelerated by steam, cold air, or hot air pressure in addition to gravity.
Power drop hammers
The ram’s acceleration is increased in the power-drop hammer by the air friction added to the top side of the ram cylinder. It’s a computer with stroke constraints. The board (weight) is lifted and lowered on the die frequently through friction rolls. Its ranking is in terms of the ram’s weight and the energy supplied. In a piston and cylinder arrangement, it uses steam. It has a higher potential for forging. Forgings varying from a few kilograms to many tones may be made.
There is a range of advantages to Hammer forging. For example:
- Forging useful bits & sections
- Creating strong mechanical characteristics
- The technique of quick production
- Less disposal of content makes
- Produces outstanding product grain flow
Finish machining is also the final stage in this process, and for this approach alone, near dimensional tolerances will not be achieved. Hammer forging is an ideal alternative for forging components that are prone to high-stress end-use conditions.